Understanding Origin of ancient Mythologies and Human religion

Star Myths

A blog on myths related to Solstices and Constellations along with comparative analysis with other cultures

By : Arvind Bhagwath

Introduction:
Festivals in Hinduism like Vaikunta Ekadashi during winter solstice (Dec-Jan) haunted me to find the connection between human and God via Heaven Gate. The Vaishnava (Worshipers/Followers of Vishnu) sect believes that ‘Vaikunta Dwaram’ or ‘the gate’ to the ‘Lord’s Inner Sanctum’ is opened on this day. We see chariot festivals in almost every major temples and millions visit their respective temples in India during this day. People believe that the dwaram (passage) is opened only on Vaikuntha Ekadashi and it is believed that any person who passes through this `Vaikuntha Dwaram’ on this particular day attains salvation. The Shaiva sect observes the day as Trikoti Ekadashi, a religious observance where all the deities in the Hindu pantheon pay obeisance to Lord Sri Shiva. In same coincidence, we also have Christmas being celebrated at same time all over world and something made me feel that this coincidence is also related to Egyptian pyramids in which they believed that ‘scared gate’ enabled the deceased and mummified pharaoh to be transformed to God at same time during Winter Solstice. The idea is basically resurrection of God and this made me to investigate all the ancient symbols of Proto-Indo Europeans, Egyptians, Indus Valley,Sumerian cultures etc and was able to see almost similar myths in every culture. 

Let us start with findings from one of the most ancient archaeological remains at Gobekli Tepe (Turkey) of around 11,500BCE. From the image belowyou can clearly see proto-Vedic astrology carved on stone pillars as these ancient civilization located circumpolar constellations (Draco/Shishumara and Cygnus) around pole star of Northern night sky. These circumpolar constellationsnever seem to set and they simply rotate around the pole star that basically supported concept of Heaven/God for people of ancient civilizations. It appeared for them as these circumpolar constellations was controlling the movement of all stars and planets around it In Hindu mythology, these circumpolar constellations are referred as Shisumara planetary system and other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Śhiśumāra planetary system according to the calculations of ancient Vedic astronomers. Even in current world and to concentrate their minds, Vedic sages worship the Śhiśumāra planetary system, which is technically known as the Kuṇḍalini-cakraAll these archaeological remains clearly show a proof that humans were aware of Astrology or Astronomy even 12000 years back that basically supported them to build culture, religion and deities based on constellations/cosmic formations in sky.

Ancient Vishnu Sahasranamam and commentary from Adi Shankara is very interesting which refers Dhruva(Pole star) at Shishumara’s tail end. This was possible only when Pole star was Thuban( 2800 – 2400 BCE).

Reference link for SB 5.23.3: purport: https://vedabase.io/en/library/sb/5/23/3/

Dhruvaloka(Pole Star), the abode of Lord Viṣṇu within this universe, is situated 1,300,000 yojanas from the seven stars(Big Dipper). In the planetary system of Dhruvaloka are the planets of the fire-god(Agni),IndraPrajāpatiKaśyapa and Dharma, all of whom are very respectful to the great devotee Dhruva, who lives on the polestar. Like bulls yoked to a central pivot, all the planetary systems revolve around Dhruvaloka, impelled by eternal time. Those who worship the virāṭ-puruṣa, the universal form of the Lord, conceive of this entire rotating system of planets as an animal known as śhiśhumāra. This imaginary śhiśhumāra is another form of the Lord. The head of the śhiśhumāra form is downward, and its body appears like that of a coiled snake. On the end of its tail is Dhruvaloka, on the body of the tail are PrajāpatiAgniIndra and Dharma, and on the root of the tail are Dhātā and Vidhātā. On its waist are the seven great sages. The entire body of the śhiśhumāra faces toward its right and appears like a coil of stars. On the right side of this coil are the fourteen prominent stars from Abhijit to Punarvasu, and on the left side are the fourteen prominent stars from Puṣyā to Uttarāṣāḍhā. The stars known as Punarvasu and Puṣyā are on the right and left hips of the śhiśhumāra, and the stars known as Ārdrā and Aśleṣā are on the right and left feet of the śhiśhumāra. Other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Śhiśhumāra planetary system according to the calculations of Vedic astronomers. To concentrate their minds, yogīs worship the Śhiśhumāra planetary system, which is technically known as the kuṇḍalini-cakra.
Refer this link for locating Saptarishis(7 Sages) using Stellarium : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q19gZiVKy9w

Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson explained the naming as apt metaphor in Egyptian ideology. “Circumpolar stars are a very good metaphor for the afterlife because when viewed, they never seem to set: they simply rotate around the pole star. They are the undying stars, or in Egyptian terminology, the “Indestructibles”, a perfect destination for the soul of the dead king”.
Egyptian pyramids are precisely orientated to North pole star (Thuban during 2800 till 2000 BCE) and the Pyramids were constructed in a way that aligned with the sun’s rising at the exact point of Summer and Winter SolsticeMilky Way represented Nile River and it looks exact mimic of night sky. Deities of ancient Egyptian religion were constellations or as actual stars. This cosmology helped them to identify yearly flooding of the Nile coordinated with the summer solstice, carry out religious rituals associated with respective Gods(Constellations) and further supported them as crucial event for growing crops. Below is East – West view using Stellarium application that gives clear idea on reason behind construction of ancient Pyramids.
Ancient Hindu temples too follow exactly same logic. Due to earth’s precession cycle, Gemini constellations are current star gate and are represented as Dvarapalaks/Temple Guards in ancient Hindu temples.

Lion gate ( 2800 BC) acted as star gate to Heaven(the afterlife).Circumpolar stars near Draco acted as “indestructible” stars which were a constant reminder of eternity for ancient Egyptians, the afterlife location

North Pole Star and concept of Heaven:
As mentioned below, Earth axis encounters a motion called precession which causes our axis to trace out an imaginary circle on the celestial sphere every 26,000 years. This is the same calculationwhich ancientVedic astrologers referred as Yugas.

VārāhaMihira who was the most famous Indian astronomer from ancient times identified North Pole as the location of Holy Meru in his work Pancha-Siddhāntikā and same goes with the ancient Hindu astronomical text known as the Suryasiddhanta, locates Meru as the ‘Navel of the Earth’.
Many famous Buddhist and as well as Hindu temples have been built as symbolic representations of this mountain and several myths have been associated with this holy mountain. If we refer Hindu Puranas in particular, it describes that Gods reside at north direction. In one of reference to Lord Brahma’s day and night, it is mentioned that his one day is equivalent to one year for humans and this appears to be based on idea that north pole has six months of sunlight and six months of darkness, which makes it day and night for one year.
Further, in Hindu rituals, the symbol with arms pointing clockwise (卐) is called swastika. If you try to locate the ancient Ramayana verse on ‘Dhruvam sarve Pradakshinam’ it refers Dhruvam as the pole star and these seven sages(Saptarishis) (Big Dipper) offer Pradakshinam. The word swastika is derived from the Sanskrit root swasti, which is composed of –
Su (सु) – good, well, auspiciousAsti (अस्ति) – to be or there isMost of Hindu rituals in which devotees doing pradaskshina around God, pradaskhina in temples, holy hills, pradakshina around Agni God(Fire) during Hindu marriage rituals have been associated with this cosmology. We can find these circumpolar constellations such as Big Dipper(Swastica) and Draco in several ancient cultures as shown below:

Most of ancient scriptures describe Mount Meru as the Central Pivot of the Universe and the entire cosmos revolves around it. 7 Sages(Big Dipper), Draco, the SunMoon and Stars paying obeisance while circum-ambulating the Holy Mountain Meru or around Shishumara Planetary system. Ancient Vishnu Sahasranamam and commentary from Adi Shankara is very interesting which refers Dhruva(Pole star) at Shishumara’s tail end. This was possible only when Pole star was Thuban( 2800 – 2400 BCE).

Reference link for SB 5.23.3: purport: https://vedabase.io/en/library/sb/5/23/3/

Dhruvaloka(Pole Star), the abode of Lord Viṣṇu within this universe, is situated 1,300,000 yojanas from the seven stars(Big Dipper). In the planetary system of Dhruvaloka are the planets of the fire-god(Agni),IndraPrajāpatiKaśyapa and Dharma, all of whom are very respectful to the great devotee Dhruva, who lives on the polestar. Like bulls yoked to a central pivot, all the planetary systems revolve around Dhruvaloka, impelled by eternal time. Those who worship the virāṭ-puruṣa, the universal form of the Lord, conceive of this entire rotating system of planets as an animal known as śhiśhumāra. This imaginary śhiśhumāra is another form of the Lord. The head of the śhiśhumāra form is downward, and its body appears like that of a coiled snake. On the end of its tail is Dhruvaloka, on the body of the tail are PrajāpatiAgniIndra and Dharma, and on the root of the tail are Dhātā and Vidhātā. On its waist are the seven great sages. The entire body of the śhiśhumāra faces toward its right and appears like a coil of stars. On the right side of this coil are the fourteen prominent stars from Abhijit to Punarvasu, and on the left side are the fourteen prominent stars from Puṣyā to Uttarāṣāḍhā. The stars known as Punarvasu and Puṣyā are on the right and left hips of the śhiśhumāra, and the stars known as Ārdrā and Aśleṣā are on the right and left feet of the śhiśhumāra. Other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Śhiśhumāra planetary system according to the calculations of Vedic astronomers. To concentrate their minds, yogīs worship the Śhiśhumāra planetary system, which is technically known as the kuṇḍalini-cakra.
Pole star now is located at end of Ursa Minor as shown below.

Unlike Hindu cosmology, even Jain and Buddhist scriptures mention the Mount Meru model as shown above, but Dhruvaloka is particularly not mentioned. In Norse mythology, they talk about a World Tree that connects Heaven, Earth and Hell just like Meru. For Egyptians, Meru was something like Pyramid that supported God re-birth Myth as the Egyptians believed that the unmovable area the stars circled was heaven, the pyramids were built to align north with a single, perfectly aligned vent.
Reference Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson explained the naming as apt metaphor in Egyptian ideology. “Circumpolar stars are a very good metaphor for the afterlife because when viewed, they never seem to set: they simply rotate around the pole star. They are the undying stars, or in Egyptian terminology, the Indestructibles, a perfect destination for the soul of the dead king”.

–    

Egyptian pyramids are precisely orientated to North pole star (Thuban during 2800 till 2000 BCE) and the Pyramids were constructed in a way that aligned with the sun’s rising at the exact point of Summer and Winter SolsticeMilky Way represented Nile River and it looks exact mimic of night sky. Deities of ancient Egyptian religion were constellations or as actual stars. This cosmology helped them to identify yearly flooding of the Nile coordinated with the summer solstice, carry out religious rituals associated with respective Gods(Constellations) and further supported them as crucial event for growing crops.

Lion gate ( 2800 BC) acted as star gate to Heaven(the afterlife).Circumpolar stars near Draco acted as “indestructible” stars which were a constant reminder of eternity for ancient Egyptians, the afterlife location. Below is East – West view using Stellarium application that gives clear idea on reason behind construction of ancient Pyramids.

Ancient Hindu temples too follow exactly same logic. Due to earth’s precession cycle, Gemini constellations are current star gate and are represented as Dvarapalaks/Temple Guards in ancient Hindu temples.

Greeks referred the location of union from earth to Heaven(circumpolar constellation) with structure of omphalos, “the navel” of the earth and they localized Omphalos(Stone of Delphi) as the central point from which terrestrial life originated in ancient Greek temples of Delphi and for Hinduism, it is referred as Linga(Union between Purusha and Prakrati). Almost every religion has the same philosophical concept and the ideas looks exactly identical. Below image shows very close similarities like milk offering rituals to Axis mundi/mandala stone structure in ancient Greek and current Hindu religion.Reference : Axis mundi – Wikipedia

The five central towers of Angkor Wat symbolize the peaks of Mount Meru, which according to Hindu mythology is the dwelling place of the gods. The famous Brihadeeswara Temple of Tamil Nadu is referred as “Dakshina Meru” – the Meru Mountain of the South. Every Hindu temple is built on a cosmic plan and the roof tower crowning the shrine refers to Kalasha (The Purna-Kalasha is considered a symbol of abundance and “source of life” in the Vedas) and temple Shikara represents Meru which reaches the ground and extends into the heavens pointing towards the world axis. 

Ancient Avestan scriptures refers Hara mountains(Alborz) as Sumeru near south coast of Caspian Sea. The name Alborzis derived from Harā Barazaitī, a legendary mountain in the Avesta, the main text of Zoroastrianism.It is MtMeru in Jainism and Buddhism. ‘Su‘ means good in Sanskrit and thus the name Mount Sumeru. Vedic tribes have localized this mountain and associated cosmogony in whichever place they migrate. Some researchers identify Mount Meru or Sumeru with the Pamirs, northern part of Afghanistan.As per current local Hindu cosmogony, SUMERU PARBAT(6351m) is present Kedārnāth mountain in the Garhwal district of Uttaranchal, India and below is Shiva Lingam alignment to Holy Sumeru. Constructing Shiva temples along the Madhyamrekha have mythological significance. Ancient Purnanas explains the  significance and origin of Lingam along this Meridian(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/79th_meridian_east)Reference: https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/madhyarekha

Below are most ancient Shiva temples in India that are perfectly aligned in straight line– 79° Meridian East

  • ·       Kedarnath – 79.066900° E
  • ·       Kalpeshwar – 79.449108° E
  • ·       Rudranath –   79.318445° E
  • ·       Madhya Maheshwar – 79.221632° E
  • ·       Baijnath Dham – 79.615734° E
  • ·       Kaleshwaram, Telangana – 79.904528° E
  • ·       Mallikarjun Jyotirling, AP – 78.868031° E
  • ·       Kalahasti, AP – 79.698279° E
  • ·       Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu – 79.696243° E
  • ·       Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu – 79.066688° E
  • ·       Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu – 79.693521° E
  • ·       Thiruvanakoil, Tamil Nadu  – 78.705673° E
  • ·       Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu – 79.317787° E

In similar way, you can locate most of ancient Sun temples in Tropic of Cancer (ancient Karkrekha) like Sun temples of Orissa, Ujjain, Egypt, Ankor Wat till Mexico. All these ancient structures are perfectly aligned to North Star and these locations supported in birth of several religions. The day of Sun Solstice when the Sun is exactly over head in Tropic of Cancer is auspicious in every religion. Vedic astronomers have used ancient Sun Dial to locate Pole star something like shown below and you find them in Ved Shala in Ujjain, India.

The upper planes of the two walls on the sides of the steps in the middle of the instrument are parallel to the axis of the earth. In the direction of the planes the pole star is visible which primarily helped them to align ancient religious structures to perfect North Star(Heaven). Normally these measurements were done during Akshaya Tritiya when Sun is exactly overhead which will help to get accurate measurement of right angle to locate the North Star.

The Ancient Babylonians knew about a form of trigonometry and they discovered their own unique form of trigonometry during the Old Babylonian period (1900-1600BCE), more than 1,500 years earlier than the Greek form. These calculations were used to find the distance of stars, construction of perfectly star aligned ziggurats and pyramids. 

The Surya Siddhanta is a ancient Indian text on astronomy and time keeping, an idea that appears much earlier as the field of Jyotisha (Vedanga) of the Vedic period. The text is known for some of earliest known discussion of sexagesimal fractions and trigonometric functions. Parallax angle was used to measure distance. It uses sine (jya)cosine (kojya or “perpendicular sine”) and inverse sine (otkram jya) and also contains the earliest use of the tangent and secant when discussing the shadow cast by a mid day sun with Vedic Sundial.

yojana (Sanskrit: योजन) is a measure of distance that was used in ancient India. A yojana is about 8 miles in Surya SiddhantaReference  :  https://sanskritdictionary.org/yojana

      Hindu Mythology and logic behind Hindu Calendar:

Similar to mythological stories of ancient Egyptians, Sumerians and also as we see in different cultures like ancient Greeks, Persians etc. The Vernal equinoxSolstices and star constellations in Hindu Astrology supported in creation of several mythological stories and also rituals associated with it. Most of God’s in Hindu mythology are associated with stars and corresponding constellations. Vedic astrology got developed based on celestial movement of stars and planets in night sky and so as mythological stories based on these constellations and Planets. With mythology, rituals got developed and below is reference for Hindu Calendar : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_calendar 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Hindu_festivals

As per Hindu mythology, Hiraṇyagarbha (Sanskrit: हिरण्यगर्भः ; literally the ‘Cosmic womb’ or ‘golden egg/Womb’ is the source of the creation of universe or the manifested cosmos. The Upanishad calls it the Soul of the Universe or Brahman.  Hiraṇyagarbha is the term used in the Vedanta for the “creator”. Hiraṇyagarbha is also Brahmā and is known as Svayambhu (self-born). Ten Prajapatis, who are believed to be the fathers of the human race were also sons of Brahma. A list of ten includes MarichiAngirasAtriPulastyaPulahaKratuVasishthaDakshaBhrigu and Narada.
Below image is representation of complete Hindu Mythology Family Tree :

In ancient Indianastronomy, the constellation of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) is called saptarishi, with the seven stars representing seven rishis, namely “Vashistha”, “Marichi“, “Pulastya“, “Pulaha“, “Atri”, “Angiras” and “Kratu“. 

NOTE : Due to Earth’s precession cycle, location of Pole star(Dhruva) appears to have changed from earlier Puranic reference from tail of Shishumara(Draco) to tail of Ursa Minor(Current Polaris).
(Viṣhṇu Purāṇa, Part 2, Chapter 9)The basis and support of this constellation of Śhiśhumāra is Mahā Viṣhṇu, who is the support of all light and effulgence. Dhruva, son of Uttānapāda came to be installed at the tail-end of Śhiśhumāra as he had worshiped ViṣhṇuŚhiśhumāra is dependent upon Viṣhṇu, the Lord of all, and Dhruva is dependent upon ŚhiśhumāraSūrya is dependent on Dhruva

Reference : https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/shishumara
Is Tārāmaya; the eternal deity; Uttānapāda is the upper jaw, Yajña is the lower lip, Dharma is the head, heart is NārāyaṇaSādhya and Aśvins front feet, Varuṇa and Aryama is the hind feet, the samvatsara, child; Mitra is Apāna; tail is AgniMahendraMarīci and Kaśyapa and Dhruva; all the planets are centered in Dhruva.

It appears that ancient Sages might have precisely practiced the Big Dipper movement in form of Yoga as shown below.

Even AtharvanaVeda Parishishta also indicates that North Pole star was in the Draco (Shishumara) constellation as mentioned above.To check accuracy of Vishnu Purana, I tried Stellarium application and moved the night sky date back to 2800 BCE and I was perfectly able to locate Thuban at end of 14 star Draco constellation(Shishumara)Thuban was Pole star during 3000 – 2500 BCE.

Pole star now is located at end of Ursa Minor as shown below.

Most of heavens, mythologies and deities in almost all religions/civilizations are associated with constellations in Northern Sky and some visible stars like OrionLepus, Taurus from Southern sky which were visible for civilization in Northern Hemisphere. Heavens in almost all religions lie near North Star(Saptarishi Mandala). This gives understanding that most of ancient Vedas and Puranas was primarily developed by civilization in Northern Hemisphere. However, we have story in Hindu mythology about Sage Vishwamitra supporting in creation of a parallel heaven in a portion of the southern sky near South Pole during a fight with Lord Indra when Vishwamitra’s disciple Trishanku was not allowed by Indra in Heaven(Indra Loka) located near North PoleTrishanku corresponds to the collection of three crosses around Crux, also known as the Southern Cross.Canopus is named after the great seer Agastya.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trishanku
In ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, Maharishi Valmiki has also referred to Trishanku and it mentions that Sage Vishvamitra has replicated Southerly Ursa Major in southerly direction and still remaining amidst of sages that highly reputed sage Vishvamitra further started to replicate the stars sequentially, resorting to the southern hemisphere, as he is convulsed in anger at Indra.

For the fact, ancient puranas were composed was primarily based on looking Northern Hemisphere skies and we can never locate Southern Cross/Trishanku from ancients towns of Northern HemisphereTrishanku heaven is visible only from extreme southern parts of India and similarly Sapta Rishi(Big Dipper) pradakshina and North Pole star cannot be seen by people living in Southern Hemisphere. Then how did Maharishi Valmiki in Ramayana, composers of Bhagavatha Purana and other sacred scriptures mention Trishanku and the star system near South Pole. It is debatable and some people mention that these stories of Trishanku got added later in Hindu mythology. Modern science answers this mystery and we get the truth to this topic when we try to stimulate ancient sky to 4000 years back by using few astronomical stimulation tools like Stellarium, we find out that Trishanku was visible for people from Northern Hemisphere during the time when Puranas or Vedas was composed and as the earth’s precession is getting changed, it is only in the last 1000 years that these stars in Southern sky is not been visible. Now the constellation of Trishanku lies at the exact cardinal South which was not the case in Southern sky during 3000-2000 BCE.

Coming back to constellations of Northern sky, Atharvaveda Parishishtha also mentions Brahmarishi as a circumpolar constellation. Cygnus constellation was referred to as Brahmarishi in Atharvaveda Parishishta. If you note above, Galactic center of Milky Way is location of Cygnus constellation that acts as vahana for Lord Brahma. Brahma’s consort Goddess Saraswathi is associated with the Lyra (Veena) in her hands. Practicing veena(musical instrument) in Indian school of arts during Brahma Muhurtham comes under the influence of Cygnus constellation.

Chandra(Moon God) is synonymous to Soma. Other names include Indu (“bright drop”), Atrisuta (“son of Atri”), Sachin (“marked by hare”), Tārādhipa (“lord of stars”) and Nishakara (“the night maker”).

In Hindu mythology, Chandra(Moon God) met Tara, the wife of Brihaspati (planet Jupiter) and abducted her. From their union, Tara became pregnant, giving birth to Budha (planet Mercury). Brihaspati, being upset, declared a war but the Devas intervened and Tara was returned to Brihaspati. Budha’s son was Pururavas who established the Chandravanshi Dynasty as shown in Hindu mythology chart above under Atri.

Chandra(Moon God) later pursued Daksha’s 27 daughters who are 27Nakshatras in night sky and theseare the 27 divisions of the zodiac based on the moon’s daily motion of 13 degrees and 20 minutes.  27 daughters of Daksha(Creator God) who got married to Moon God form 27 days of a month. According to the Puranas, Daksha (Creator God -Prajapati) had several daughters from his wife Prasuti and Virani. Daksha and his wife Virani had 62 daughters. 10 of those daughters were married to Dharma, 13 to sage Kashyapa (like Aditi, Diti etc), 27 to Chandra(Moon God), 4 to Arishtanemi, 1 to Kama, 1 to lord Shiva, 2 to sons of sage Bhrigu, 2 to sage Angiras, 2 to Krisasva and according to Vishnu Purana and Padma Purana, Daksha and his wife Prasuti had 24 daughters. The names of these 24 daughters are :Sradda,Srilakshmi(Prosperity), Dhriti (Steadiness), Thushti (Resignation),Pushti (Thriving), Medha (Intelligence), Kriya (Action,devotion), Buddhika (Intellect),Lajja (Modesty), Vapu(Body),Santi (Expiation), Siddhika (Perfection), Kirtti (Fame), Khyati (Celebrity), Sati (Truth), Sambhuti (Fitness),Smriti (Memory),Priti (Affection),Kshama(Forgiveness),Sannati (Humility),Anasuya,Urjja (Energy),Swaha (Offering),nd Swadha (Oblation).Rigvedic verse “Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha” is a reference to “the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence”. Aditi was attributed the status of first deity by the Vedic culture and she gave birth to Daksha and in re-birth, she is again daughter of Daksha married to Sage Kashyappa.
Divine mother Goddess
 is an aspect of Goddess Saraswati, Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Parvati, all three in one form, a form of Adi Shakti, as she is the human form of the Gayatri writings of the Vedas, hence called Gayatri meaning ‘Gaya’ to sing and ‘tri’ referring to the three Goddess, is the source of Brahma’s power.The Gāyatrī Mantra is also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda and dedicated to praise the glory of the universe creatoroṃ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥtatsaviturvareṇyaṃbhargo devasyadhīmahidhiyo yo naḥ prachodayāt– Rigveda 3.62.1Gayathri Mantra : We meditate on the glory of that Being who has produced this universe; may He enlighten our minds.

Sage Kashyapa is the father of all the Asuras and Devas that gave birth to all star constellations and planets with wife Diti  and Aditi. In Vedic astrology, some planets and star constellations are considered “good” and some “bad” that form Devas and Asuras.

Kaśyapa alternatively kacchapa, means “turtle” in Sanskrit. This constellation is Casyapi (Kasyapi, similar to Cassiopeia or Kassiopeia). 

A rich section of the Milky Way runs through Cassiopeia, stretching from Perseus towards Cygnus. According to Michael Witzel, it is related to Avestan kasiiapa, Sogdian kyšph, New Persian kašaf, kaš(a)p which mean “tortoise“. The Kassites (/ˈkæsaɪts/) were also people of the ancient middle east Asia, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology). The endonym of the Kassites was probably Galzu, although they have also been referred to by the names KaššuKassiKasi or Kashi. Similar to Mitanni dynastyKassi dynasty deities closely resemble deities of ancient Vedic civilization

Kurma (Sanskrit: कूर्म; Kūrma, ‘turtle’, ‘tortoise’), also known as ‘KurmaRaja’ (‘Tortoise King’) is an avatar of the RigVedic god Vishnu. Originating in Vedic literature such as the YajurVeda as being synonymous with the Saptarishi called Kasyapa, Kurma is most commonly associated in post-Vedic literature such as the Puranas with the legend of the churning of the Ocean of Milk, referred to as the Samudra manthan

Aditi (Daughter of King Daksha) with sage Kashyapa(Son of Marichi)had 33 sons who are referred as Devas. Twelve are called Aditya including Surya that form 12 months of Hindu calendar, eleven are called Rudras and eight are called Vasus. Aditi (Sanskrit: अदिति “limitless”) is mother of the gods (devamata) and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix, the heavenly bodies were born.She may be seen as a feminized form of Brahma and associated with the primal substance (mulaprakriti) in Vedanta. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda.Diti (Other Daughter of King Daksha) with the sage Kashyapa gave birth to the Daityas (Sanskrit: दैत्य). These are a clan or race of Asura . They are referred as Danavas. Below are notable Daityas or race of AsurasAsuras were evil and as per Hindu mythology, whenever evil prevails, Lord Vishnu is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order. More information of Avatars can be found @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashavatara

Star Wars between Devas and Asuras :Shukra(Venus Planet) is the name of a son of Sage Bhrigu(one of the Saptarishis(Big Dipper constellation)). He was the guru of Daityas / Asuras, and is also referred to as Shukracharya or Asuracharya in various Hindu texts. When Shukra was young, Shukra(Venus Planet) and Brihaspati(Jupiter Planet) studied under the same guru, Sage Angirasa, who was Brihaspati’s father. Shukra was known to be more knowledgeable than Brihaspati, but he was disturbed by Angirasa’s favoritism for his son Brihaspati

During this period Brihaspati(Jupiter) became the Guru of the Devas. Due to the hatred Sukracarya(Venus) became the Guru of Asuras. He helped them achieve victory over the Devas and used his knowledge to revive the dead and wounded among them. The planets Mercury and Saturn are considered friendly to Shukra, the Sun, the Moon and Jupiter are hostile, and the rest are considered neutral. Lunar nodes like Rahu and Ketu are also referred as bad planets(Asuras). You can find several such mythological stories like Samudra mantan under milky way mythologies captured in this blog below.

NOTE : Haéusōs has been reconstructed as the Proto-Indo-European goddess of the dawn and Twenty-one hymns in the Rigveda are dedicated to the dawn goddessUṣás ( Ushas).
Chhaya is the Hindu personification or goddess of shadow, and the consort of Surya(Sun God). She is the shadow-image or reflection of Saranyu (Sangya), the first wife of Surya. Chhaya was born from the shadow of Saranyu and replaced Saranyu in her house, after the latter temporarily left unable to bear Surya’s fierce splendour.Chhaya is usually described as the mother of Shani, the god of the planet Saturn.Saranyu and her sister Chhaya(Shadow Goddess) are the wives of Lord Surya(Sun god). Children of Surya(Sun God) by Saranyu are Yama/Yamini/Ashwins and Manu ( Creator of Mankind). If we study PIE mythology – Proto-Indo-European mythology – Wikipedia and look at Vedic Ashvins, the Lithuanian Ašvieniai and almost all other Vedic Deities of Hinduism, we can see a Proto-Indo-European origin.
As per Vedic astrology, the 12 Adityas(Sun Gods) are the energies of the Sun placed in various zodiac signs that forms 12 months of a year.

The Age of Aries commenced around 2000 B.C and it was during this time the Ram became sacred to Amon, the solar deity of Egypt and same goes with Hindu calendars too. If you notice Hindu rituals, Mesha Sankranti (also called Mesha Sankramana or Hindu New Year) refers to the first day of the solar cycle year, that is the solar New Year in the Hindu luni-solar calendarMesha Sankranti falls on 13 April usually, sometimes 14 April. This day is the basis for major Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist festivals, of which Vaisakhi and Vesak are the most well known.
Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesha_Sankranti

In the Egyptian book of the Underworld called Amduat there are twelve divisions indicating the zones of the zodiac through which the soul, as sun, must journey on its way back to its sacred seat.Sun God with RAM head (Aries) is shown travelling in a boatVedic Astrology and energies of Adityas(The Sun GOD) that forms 12 months of a year starts from Aries(Mesha) and below is reference of Rig Veda.

“Dhatar, the great Creator, then formed in due order Sun and Moon.He formed in order Heaven and Earth, the regions of the air, and light.”
– Rig Veda

Mythology/Logic behind creation of 30 days in a month.The ancient Vedic civilization concept of the month was based on lunar cycle which was approximately 28 days based on 28 Nakshatras (28th nakshatra was Abhijit) as shown in below chart.The earliest ancient Roman calendars also had months that were 28 or 29 days. Julius Caesar modified the Roman calendar in 46 B.C. to make each month have either 30 or 31 days to sync with Solar cycle in 12 Zodiac, since the lunar cycle is approximately 29.5 days, which does not divide evenly into the 365.25 days that make up a year. The current Gregorian calendar was a modification of the Julian calendar.
In Hindu mythology, 27 daughters of Daksha(Creator God) are 27 Nakshatras and these 27 sisters had one brother and that brother is Abhijit Nakshatra of sky. 27 daughters of Daksha(Creator God) who got married to Moon God form 27 days of a month. Nakshatras are the 27 divisions of the zodiac based on the moon’s daily motion of 13 degrees and 20 minutesThe Moon travels the zodiac in 27.3 days spending roughly one day in each Nakshatra.

Moon God(Chandra) spends 1 day with each wife in a month that is equal to lunar mansion. As per ancient myth, Moon God initially was interested in marrying Rohini (Rohini Nakshatra) only. He had reluctantly married to other 26 Nakshatras on Daksha’s request. Realizing this, Chandra spends more time with Rohini and neglects the other 26 wives. This upsets the wives, and they complained to Daksha. Daksha got furious and cursed Chandra that he will slowly lose his splendor and perish which is nothing but waning of Moon. The Moon having this curse tired to please Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva could not reverse Daksha’s curse. However he softened the curse for Moon. From Shiva’s blessings the Moon now increases in size for 15 days and then begins decreasing in size that are waxing and waning of Moon.Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nakshatras
Logic behind seven days week in a month:

Skymaps can be downloaded from : http://skymaps.com/downloads.htm

If you observe Vedic calendar( as shown above), you can find that ancient people believed that each hour of the day was governed by one of the deities associated with the celestial bodies. Hindu texts used the lunar cycle for setting months and days, but the solar cycle to set the complete year. As per Hindu astrology Rahu and Ketu have an orbital cycle of 18 years and are always 180 degrees from each other orbital. If you remove these two lunar nodes ( Rahu and Ketu), you can arrive at 7 days week as represented below:

Order of weekdays was done with speed at which these planets crossed the sky and concluded that the fastest object must have the shortest distance to the Earth, while the slowest object was believed to be farthest away. These details are captured in Surya Siddhanta.

Below are important details to calculate time as per ancient Vedic astronomy:

  • 1 vighati = 24 seconds
  • 2.5 vighati = 1 minute
  • 60 vighati = 1 ghati(24 minutes)
  • 2.5 ghati = 1 hour
  • 60 ghati = 24 hours = 1 day
  • 7 days = 1 week
  • 2 weeks = A fortnight (Paksha) (Krishnapaksha and Suklapaksha)
  • 2 paksha = 1 month
  • 2 months = 1 season
  • 6 months = 1 ayana
  • 2 ayanams = 1 Year
  • One lunar day is called Tithi.

Respiration = Prana and six respiration make a vinadi, sixty of these a nadi
There are 15 tithis in one paksha (They are the following:Pradhama, Dwithiya, Thrithiya, Chathurthi, Panchami, Shashti, Sapthami, Ashtami, Navami, Daśami, Ekādaśi, Dwādaśi, Thrayodaśi, Chathurdaśi, Amāvāsya / Pourṇami)
There are 12 months – Chaithram, Vaishākham, Jyeshtham, Āshādham, Srāvanam, Bhādrapadam, Āśwēyujam, Kārthikam, Mārgaśiram, Pushyam, Māgham and Phālguṇam.
There are 2 Ayanas – Dakshiṇāyaṇa and Uttarāyaṇa ( Sun Transit to Northern Hemisphere)

Lord Yama in Sanskrit can also be interpreted to mean “twin” that has Indo-European parallel.Reference :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YamaYamah and the related Sanskrit Yama are interpreted as “the twin,” perhaps reflecting an Indo-Iranian belief in a primordial Yama and Yami pair.We can locate parallels between Avestan Yima and Sanskrit Yama, for instance, Yima was the son of Vivaŋhat, who in turn corresponds to the Vedic Vivasvat, “he who shines out”, a divinity of the Sun. Both Yamas in Iranian and Indian myth guard Hell with the help of two four-eyed dogs ( Canis Major and Canis minor constellations).In Norse mythologyYmir was the primordial being, a giant(ORION constellation) and together with Ymir a primeval cow Auðumbla(TAURUS constellation) was born and her milk fed Ymir. The Giant Ymir then created the first male and female from the pits of his arms. Their names were Ask and Embla, the Nordic equivalent of Adam and Eve or Yama and Yami pair in Hindu Mythology (corresponds to Gemini Constellation)

Example : The name Jamshid is originally a compound of two parts, Jam and shid, corresponding to the Avestan names Yima and Xšaēta, derived from the proto-Iranian *Yamah XšaitahXšaitah meant “bright, shining” or “radiant”. Sumerians referred Yama as Namtar. In Chineese mythology, he is called as Yan. Japan, he is called Enma. In Korea, Yan is known as Yeomna. In Norse mythology, he is known as Yimir.Greek god Ouranos (Uranus in Latin) is equivalent of Vedic God Varuna and both share same mythology. He is the most prominent Asura in the Rigveda, and lord of the heavens and the earth which is same as Ouranos of Greeks. 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varuna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranus_(mythology)
All these ancient Indo-European myths are common and have clear parallels with myths of Orion constellation. “Buffalo” of Yama is Taurus and his two dogs are Canis Minor and Canis Major constellations. The river separating hell and heaven was Milky way.  
World wide mythological stories/epics of early Sumerians, Assyrians, Persians, Romans, Greeks, Slavs are almost similar like Hindu mythology. There is considerable interest in study of ancient flood  related to these 7 sages and shocking is, this tale appears in almost all the belief system that we know with maximum similarities. There is a great flood in the epic of Gilgamesh of Sumerians and we find similar tale of Matsya-avatar(Matsya Puranas) in Hindu belief system that happened almost same time during creation of these epics. Greeks have similar story about the Great Flood referring Zeus and to finally add, tale about great flood is also present in Bible ansed Quran as Noah and his ark.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah%27s_Ark
Flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in most of belief system in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retributionhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_flood_myths

The first King/ancestral figure in Hindu mythology is Manu (Creator of Man Kind) who saved 7 sages from Great Flood. It is almost similar to Egyptian ancestry too. First King/Pharaoh of Egyptian dynasty is Menes/Manu around (3200–3000 BC)( Reference : Menes – Wikipedia). All the below ancestral figure are associated with Great Flood myth ( Matsya Avatar in Hindu Mythology). Menes (Manu) was praised the first law giver of Egypt by the Greek Historian Diodorous Siculus and same goes with Hindu Mythology too in which Manu is first law giver( Refer – Manusmriti – Wikipedia)

  • Manu/Mannus, ancestral figure in Germanic mythology ( Reference : Mannus – Wikipediaand also refer ( Tuisto – Wikipedia) – Tuisto, Tvastar
  • Minos, king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa
  •  Manu (Hinduism), Progenitor of humanity
  • Nu’u, Hawaiian mythological character who built an ark and escaped a Great Flood
  • Nüwa, goddess in Chinese mythology best known for creating mankind
  • Noah, ancestral figure in all Abrahamic religions mentioned in Genesis flood narrative (Noah’s Ark – Wikipedia)

Reference : List of flood myths – Wikipedia

Sky God, Milky Way and Heaven Mythology(The Root – Moola)

The earliest idea of “egg-shaped cosmos” comes from some of the Sanskrit scriptures. The Sanskrit term for it is Brahmanda(ब्रह्माण्ड) which is derived from two words – ‘Brahma (ब्रह्मा) the creator god in Hinduism and ‘anda’ (अण्ड) meaning ‘egg’. – World egg – Wikipedia

Seven heaven concept in Egg shaped cosmos is present in almost all religions.The 7 lokas above earth are referred to as Bhu:, Bhuva: Suva: Maha: Jana: Thapa: and Satya Loka. Each door opens to next level loka/gate and  after passing through the 7th door, you reach Satya Loka or the Brahman or Lord Vishnu and all religions refer GOD at same Satya loka location – Moola (the root) – looking into the galactic center – 27° of Sagittarius
Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Heavens
Largest functioning Hindu temple – Sri Rangam temple of South India which has been mimicked as Vaikunta(Lord Vishnu’s abode) on earth has seven enclosure walls that gives same representation of planetary system and the final Vaikuntha Sagar is milky way. Same way, we have seven hills, seven ocean concept to reach God.
Below is LORD VISHNU’S ABODE as described in several ancient Puranas——————————–There is the Vaikuntha, my lord’s abode. I see Jaya and Vijaya gaurding it. I chanted some mantras and sang songs to open the 7 gates of my lord’s abode. I step into the abode and chant “Om namo narayana”. I cross the 7 gates. After the seven gates, I see a large ocean. It is very calm all over the place. I hear “OM” all around. The ocean seem to be milky. There far I see a large and large snake and someone was seated on it. I walked to it. Oh my god! It’s none other than my lord, Vishnu. Om namo narayana——————————
Seven heaven/Gates concept could possibly be seven ancient planetary systems above earth till milky way rift. This is the reason why we organize our lives around a 7-day week and this is based on these identified ancient seven planets above our heads.  This 7-day structure has also supported in popular creation myths of Greeks, Hinduism, Book of Genesis etc. The seven celestial bodies visible to the naked eye during ancient times were Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn.

Below is the Symbolism of the Kundalini serpent(Channel to Moola – The Root)

The Symbolism of the Kundalini serpent(Channel to Moola – The Root or Avatar point) is present in every ancient mythology. In ancient Hindu tantric texts, it is believed that Shakti, the feminine aspect called Kundalini lives in Human body and this energetic force rests at the base of the spine in the sacrum. The Tantric practice of Kundalini yoga is about igniting this powerful cosmic energy to ascend through the chakras that live along the axis of the spine where conscious thought is born(The Moola) and finally unite with Shiva, pure consciousness. The same symbol is even depicted within Egyptians, Mayans, Sumerians, Greek and Roman several other mythologies. This symbolism also appears in Bible as Holy Spirit.Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kundalini_yoga

All Hindu temples will have barrel-vault roof that is normally represented as Vault of Heaven. You can find Kalasha, the vase on top of every Hindu temple.It is also referred as Amrita-kalasha that emerged out of the milky ocean when it was churned. This is nothing but Sahasrara point and also the representation of Deity’s location in Galactic center. The Dome structure in all religious place represents Vault of Heaven and in some ancient traditions, skull cap – kippah (Hebrew: כיפה) is worn. Kippah literally means “dome“. Kippah is worn on the head like a dome to have divine presence of heaven always over head. Covering one’s head, such as by wearing a kippah, is described as “honoring God“. Similar way, the Sikha worn by ancient EgyptiansPersiansBuddhist and few Hindu priest signifies one-pointed (ekanta) focus on a spiritual goal to Sahasrara point(devotion to God) and all point or represent to same Galactic center(Moola – The Root) of Milky way. Below are few additional similarities in almost all cultures. Sky Goddess, serpent Symbolism represents Milky way.

Sun Solstices, Earth’s axial precession and Avatars
When earth revolves around the SUN, two solstices occur annually, on about 21 June and 21 December and along with this earth also have axial precession and the period of precession is 26,000 yearsSolstices are opposite on either side of the equator, so the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere is the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa.

We all know that the seasons of the year are directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes.. During winter solstice, the sun rises to its lowest point in the norther hemisphere sky and stands still for three days which symbolizes death. Then after midwinter, the sun is reborn from the darkness, symbolizing rebirth and the renewal of life.In the Hindu calendar, two sidereal solstices are named Makara Sankranti which marks the start of Uttarayana and Karka Sankranti which marks the start of Dakshinayana. As per Hindu calendar(most of them emphasize the lunar cycle), Makara Sankranthi festival normally occurs during 14th January when zodiacal sign corresponds with CapricornMakara is the Capricorn zodiac. Sankranthi means change over, transit into. This day marks the Sun moving into Makara Constellation and is celebrated as Makara Sankranthi festival in India which is basically harvest festival. It is during this time, Sun God’s birthday is celebrated and we find birth of Sun God at same time in almost every culture across the world based on Lunar or Solar calendar followed.
Ratha Saptami is celebrated in Hindu temples as Ravi or Surya Jayanti (the Sun-god’s birthday).Sun God Ravi or Surya turning his Ratha (Chariot) drawn by seven horses (representing seven colors) towards the northern hemisphere, in a north-easterly direction. Rath yatras are held at various temples to mark the movement of sun towards northern hemisphere

Ancient Egyptians also had Rath yatras(Deities processions in Chariot) similar to what we have currently in Indian Temples. Below is such example.

Understanding ancient astronomy, it appears that in most of ancient myths, the Milky way formation as shown above during solstice was visualized as heaven. In some myths,  it was believed to be Tree of life(path of souls) to Galactic center
Reference :

Lord Yama as represented from Orion constellation shown above with his two dogs(Canis major and Minor) was lord of Naraka(Underworld) and his vahana was Taurus(represented as Buffalo or Bull) and his duty was to direct the soul to a Swarga (heaven) or return it to Bhoomi (earth) based on human deeds(God or Bad Karma).If one’s soul were to rise to heaven after death to the Milky Way(path of soul) it had to pass through a gate(via constellations) and again we should note that the position of this gate(constellation) changes based on earth’s axial precession.Distinctive pattern of constellations along with zodiac path( Sun Transit) have supported in development of mythological stories as per astrological ages and most of them can be found in Hindu Puranas. Below are few avatars(incarnations) of Lord Vishnu as carved in ancient Hindu temples.Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrological_age

During summer solstice, constellations like Leo,  Cancer, Gemini (changes as per earth’s axial precession) acted as Gate to humans in many ancient religious beliefs where they believed that the souls ascend after death during this time of Sun Transit. On other opposite zodiac side near Sagittarius/Capricorn(Makara) we can find other side of star-gate which is near the galactic center. Galactic center is located close to Sagittarius and hence they were referred as Gate of God. 

When the Sun resides on the gates of the Sun at an equinox or solstice, it represents a Galactic Alignment and Great Celestial Conjunction. In Greek myth, the Gate of Man corresponds with the crossing of the Milky Way and ecliptic at 5° Gemini/Taurus (sidereal zodiac) while the Gate of God corresponds with the crossing of the Milky Way and ecliptic in 5° Sagittarius/Capricorn(Makara). Constellations like Gemini or Sagittarius are often depicted as Gate keepers or dwarapalakas and you can see them in every Hindu temples. Temples or Pyramids were constructed next to river representing Milky way(Cosmic River). Based on changes in earth’s precession cycle, gate keepers or dwarapalakas used to change like Lion(Sphinx)Gemini etc.

Reference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvarapala

Currently in Hinduism, it is during same period of Winter Solstice, the Vaishnava (Worshipers/Followers of Vishnu of Hinduism) celebrate Vaikuntha Ekadashi  and as per Vaishnavasect, they believe that ‘Vaikunta Dwaram’ or ‘the gate to the Lord’s Inner Sanctum’ is opened on this day. The Shaiva sect observes the day as Trikoti Ekadashi.Reference https://en.wikipedia.orgis/wiki/Vaikuntha_Ekadashi
Ancient Hindu astrology supported representation of animals as deities vehicle(vahanas) as they saw these constellations of stars in cosmic sky near galactic center or on the path of galactic equator when Avatar’s originate.

Below is August sky ( Aquila Constellation)  and can be easily identified as character with the half-eagle half-human form. In Hindu mythology, we have Garuda who is vahana of Lord Hari or Vishnu(Sun God in RigVeda). Ancient Egyptians referred this as Sun God HERU/HARU/Horus(Resurrection of Osiris) during Winter Solstice. They believed that the Sun dies and is reborn in the precession cycle at the very same place of Galactic center.

Cygne constellation can be identified as swan. In Hindu mythology we have Goddess Saraswati in Swan along with musical instrument(Lyre constellation).Goddess Saraswati represents goddess for music and wisdom in Hindu myth.

Below is Murugan/Skanda with peacock as his Vahana (Pavo)

In similar fashion, different deities have different vahanas and you can find the serpent(hydra) below the leg of pavo in night sky

Yazidi’s Peacock Angel is almost similar to Murugan/Kartikeya.Reference : http://murugan.org/research/yezidis.hindus.malik.taus.htm

Hindu temples, ancient Egyptian or Mayan Pyramids were basically constructed mimicking night sky as Heaven on Earth where deities reside. Below is architecture of Hindu temple.

During winter solstice, the sun rises to its lowest point in the norther hemisphere sky and stands still for three days which symbolizes death and then after midwinter, the sun is reborn from the darkness, symbolizing rebirth and the renewal of life. Ancient Egyptians believed that the Sun(RA) dies and is reborn in winter solstice.

The sun movement in the middle of the dark rift was seen by the Mayan’s as a rebirth of sun and ancient astronomers have precisely defined the position of the galactic equator and galactic center as exact place of birth of Sun again(Red Sun) which was represented as birth of Sun God from Cosmic Womb(galactic center).  Milky way was represented as sky goddess Nut/Mut/Maat for Egyptians and galactic center(Sun re-birth place) was Cosmic Womb and same logic goes with Mother Goddess of every culture as of today.The sun has been used for thousands of years by cultures all around the world as a symbol God re-birth and you can find them in almost every cultures as of today.

During Summer Solstice in middle of June when sun transit to the zodiac of MithunaAmbubachi Mela is celebrated for 3 days in Kamakhya Temple in GuwahatiAssam(India) and it is believed that mother earth becomes unclean for three days like the traditional women’s menstrual seclusion and these three days some restrictions are observed by the devotees.Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambubachi_MelaGod re-birth myth during solstice from galactic center (Dark Rift) and other related myths of star constellations is clearly visible in World’s First temple, Gobekli Tepe, Turkey around 11500-11000BCE

Other good example is Totem pole from Gobekeli tepe( 9000 BCE) and resemblance with Lingam of Gudimallam as shown below:

Celebration of Kartika Deepam occurs on the day when the moon is in conjunction with the constellation Karthigai (Pleiades) and pournami. This constellation appears as a group of six stars in the firmament in the shape of a pendant from the ear and is celebrated as  Kartik Purnima
Shatkona symbol represents the union of the masculine and feminine energies of the soul. This unification gives birth to Skanda/Kartikeya.Kartikeya sometimes depicted having six heads.In Hindu astronomy, they are stars(Krittika). The Pleiades (Krittika) are also particularly revered in Hindu mythology as the six mothers of the war god Skanda, who developed six faces for each one of them.

Reference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiades_in_folklore_and_literature

Among stars, Sirius is the brightest star system in the night sky. Star Sirius(night Sun) along with Orion and Taurus constellation forms as Mrgavyadha deer hunter” and this constellation(Orion)  represents Rudra (Shiva) as per RigVeda. This Story of Shiva as Mrgavyadha is found in the 65th chapter of Brahmanda Purana. Almost all ancient myths are common and have clear parallels with myths of Orion constellation. The distinctive pattern of Orion has been recognized in numerous cultures around the world with several myths have been associated with it.

Deities formed by Orion constellation was only god powerful enough to remove Taurus, the bull, from the path of Sun Transit in Vernal Equinox. In India, bull fighting ritual or sport happens during Makara Sankranthi and this kind of ritual or sport is found in almost every cultures of world with similar mythological stories available from Epic of Gilgamesh, mythological stories of ancient God Mithra.For Sumerianswhich refers Epic of GilgameshBull of Heaven – Gugalanna was sent by the gods to take retribution upon Gilgamesh.Gilgamesh and his companion Enkidu fight with bull of heaven. It most of ancient beliefs including Mithra religion, religion of ancient Egyptians, Sumerians, it was believed that blood of cosmic bull fertilized all vegetation and animals. Hence Mithra’s slaying of the bull became the ritualistic prototype of fertility in Mithraic cult and most of later religious belief system. Sacrificial ceremonies continues even today in many cultures and religions based on these Orion and Taurus star myths, however for economical purposes, the goats have replaced the bull or buffalo.

Below is Sumerian Icon Gilgamesh(Orion) fighting with Taurus(Bull of Heaven).

SUN GOD worship prevailed in ancient Europe during solstice, Mithraism of Romans was practiced before Christianity. Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing Protector of Truth referred by ancient Persians. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithra ( Mithra is also Sun GOD in RigVeda of Hinduism)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithraism
In Mithraism, it was the worship of Mithra, the Iranian god of the sun, justice, contract and war in pre-Zoroastrian Iran. Known as Mithras in the Roman Empire during the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, this deity was honored as the patron of loyalty to the emperor. 
Orion is Cosmic Dancer andthis formation of Orion happens during Winter Solstice(Dec-Jan),Arudra Darshan is celebrated and Shiva is represented as Nataraj. In some of south Indian states, it is celebrated as Birthday of Lord Shiva. In ancient Egypt, same day was celebrated as resurrection of Osiris(representing Orion Constellation). Several ancient cultures like SumeriansPersiansGreeksRomans including Christianity have birthday or resurrection of God during same day of Winter Solstice. This takes place on the full moon night in the Tamil month of Margazhi(December–January) and this is also the longest night in a year.Reference :http://www.chidambaramhiddentreasure.com/orion-chidambaram/

Most of temples(Hill temples or Pyramids) were constructed referring this Orion constellation. Few of them started referring respective civilization/culture as Orion/Aryan race. For Hindus, Yajnopavita which is referred as sacred was born with Daksha Prajapati and this ‘girdle’ is the Orion’s belt in Orion constellation. Coming to thread wearing, it is also common to Zoroastrianism of ancient Persia(Aryan Homeland), Greeks and several others.http://www.heritageinstitute.com…Dr. B R Ambedkar (Father of Indian Constitution) has done very in-depth analysis of Vedas and has very beautifully explained these myths and associated creation of races(Varnas) in his book – Who Were the Shudras? – WikipediaSoft copy can be found from Indian Government(MEA) Website : https://www.mea.gov.in/Images/at…

B.G Tilak has covered astronomy of ancient past very well and below book can be referred for detailed analysis on Orion/Aryan Race.Soft copy : http://www.cakravartin.com/wordp…

According to BG Tilak in his Arctic Origins of VedasRigvedic hyms were composed in the ‘Orion Period‘ when the vernal equinox was almost on the right shoulder of ‘Orion“. Sacred thread/cloth worn by few communities of India represents stars alignment in Orion Belt. In fact, Greek word Orion is derived from “Aryan” which is often referred as Aryan race.  Below is chronology of the post-glacial period as given by BG Tilak

  • 10,000 to 8000 BC – The destruction of the original Arctic home by the last Ice Age and the commencement of the post-Glacial period.
  • 8000 to 5000 BC – The age of migration from the original home. The survivors of the Aryan race roamed over the northern parts of Europe and Asia in search of lands suitable for new settlements. B G Tilak calls it the Pre-Orion Period.
  • 5000 to 3000 BC. – The Orion period, when the vernal equinox was in Orion
  • 3000 to 1400 BC – The Krittika period, when the Vernal equinox was in Pleiades.
  • 1400 to 500 BC – The Pre-Buddhistic period, when the Sutras and the Philosophical systems made their appearance.

Hinduism has different traditions as below. Goddess Durga is a central deity in Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, where she is equated with the concept of ultimate reality called Brahman.One of the most important texts of Shaktism is Devi Mahatmya, also known as Durgā Saptashatī, which celebrates Durga as the Goddess, declaring her as the Supreme Being and the creator of the universe.

Hindu Temples and Churches now cannot be imagined without their bells which are now symbols of their connection with deities, however usage of bells in Temples particularly has Egyptian origin which was later taken in Judaism, Roman religions and finally in Christianity after priesthood of Egypt/knowledge of bells/gongs was adapted in Christianity. Below was the reason for origin of temple bells. Sun God ( Main Egyptian Deity) : Ra – Wikipedia Opponent of light and Ma’at (order/truth): Apep – Wikipedia (Pa-p /Bad)Ra was thought to travel with Sia on the solar barque every night to underground and as per ancient Egyptians, he had fight with Apep every night(Underground). As a sign to protect and keep RA awake, ancient Egyptians started making various sounds and later ringing bells in temples to keep SUN God ‘RA’ awake just before he travels to night(Underground) and by doing this way, they were sure that RA would be awake and can easily win war over Apep every night and come back successfully in next day morning sky.

Many acts of worship included hymns, prayers, ringing bells and spells was used to help Ra and the sun boat overcome ApepBelow is representation of RA travelling in Solar Barque and meeting other deities (Represented from constellations of night sky)

In later Egyptian dynasties, Ra’s identity was often combined with other gods, forming an interconnection between deities based Sun transit as per ancient astronomy/astrology as shown in below chart.

In Age of Aries, the ram became a symbol for several deities in ancient past ( 2000BCE till 100BCE). Below is RA-AMUN (God with RAM head) – Ra transit in Aries

Below is scene at Abu Simbel which depicts Ramses II fighting with ten-armed Hittite(Hatti) or often depicted as ten headed Hittite king at battle of KadeshEgyptians and Hittites entered into peace treaty in 1269 BCEBattle of Kadesh : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kadesh
Hittite kings are often referred as Labarnas ( I, II, II so on). Labarna was also a title of early Hittite rulers
Ram-ses reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesses_IIRam-ses II was most powerful Egyptian Pharaoh of all times. The Indian Prabhu (Sanskrit “ruler, master, lord”), is equivalent to the Egyptian Paraa or “Pharaoh.”   

In Age of Aries, even Moses is shown with RAM head


Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_(Michelangelo)

During Age of Taurus(4500BCE till 2000BCE), Bull worship was common in many cultures . Below is Moses destroying Golden Calf that can be marking End of Taurus age and beginning of “Age of Aries”
Golden calf – Wikipedia
In similar way during end of Age of Aries, the Ram – the lamb of God was sacrificed to bring in the new order for Age of Pisces.

Jesus Christ incarnation symbolizes the movement of the Sun God into Age of Pisces(100 BCE till 2700 AD)

The age of Pisces began around 100 BCE and will end c. 2700 AD. With the story of the birth of Christ coinciding with this date, many Christian symbols for Christ use the astrological symbol for Pisces. Jesus bears many of the temperaments and personality traits of a Pisces, and is thus considered an archetype of the Piscean. Moreover, the twelve apostles were called the “fishers of men,” early Christians called themselves “little fishes,” and a code word for Jesus was the Greek word for fish, “Ikhthus”. With this, the start of the age, or the “Great Month of Pisces” is regarded as the beginning of the Christian religion.
Reference Astrological age – Wikipedia
Coming back to Age of Aries(2000BCE till 100BC) and in Hindu mythology, Lord Ram is supposed to have taken birth in Age of Aries as mentioned in Mahabharata 348.19 and also in Valmiki Ramayan below:Sandho tu samanupraptre tretayaam dwaparisya cha |Ramo daasrathirbhutva bhavishami jagatpati  ||  (Mahabharata 348.19)Explanation tretayaam dwaparisya cha means timeline of Lord Ram’s birth is between Age of Taurus(Treta Yuga) and Age of Aries(Dwaparayuga) and same is captured in Vedic calendar(Refer Vedic calendar in this blog). 

Epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata of Hindu Mythology is similar to epics of Illiad and Odysseus of Greek Mythology. It is almost same.Greek Epics Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odysseushttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iliad
Valmiki Ramayana mentioning birth of Lord Ram when the Sun was in AriesWhen Sun was in Mesha (Aries) Bhagavan Sri Jagannaath (the Supreme Lord of Universe was born; then sweet-scented flowers rained profusely for one muhurtha (duration of 12 minutes) from the sky on the castle where Sri Rama was born !! (Valmiki Ramayana)
 Below are Egyptian priests performing hymns, prayers, ringing bells to deities. Osiris is often depicted with a pair of ram horns

Indra. ( King of Gods) in Hindu Mythology can be compared to Asshur ( King of Gods) in Assyrians mythology. Sumerians reference can be found @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashur_(god)
Other good example is creation myth as shown below. RA(Egyptian) or Brahma(Hindu mythology) would be SUN God, Water God would be NU(Egyptian) or Vish-NU(Hindu mythology) and Sirius star could represent Saraswati/Aditi/Lakshmi or mother goddess. If we closely look, Egyptian creation myth based on cosmological formations in night sky is almost similar like what we know from Hindu creation myth. It is very clear that ideas are same. As per Hindu Mythology, creation started from nothing. Vishnu, was reclining on the Serpent and Serpent(Sesha) is floating on water. Lotus sprouted forth from Vishnu’s navel created God sitting on the lotus who was Brahma. Brahma opened his eyes, created mankind.If you closely look at Dendera Temple of Egypt, we have almost similar representation here as shown below.

Comparative mythology is done by scholars and have used the relationships between different myths to trace the development of religions and cultures, to propose common origins for myths from different cultures, and to support various psychological theories – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_mythology

Other closest similarity would be with Nut/MAAT of ancient Egyptian with Kamadhenu(Cosmic Cow) of Hindu mythology. Nut (Ancient Egyptian: Nwt) was the goddess of the sky in Egyptian myth. She was seen as a star-covered woman arching over the earth.Nut is also depicted in the form of a cosmic cow whose great body formed the sky and heavens similarly like Kamadhenu(cosmic cow) in Hindu mythology where all deities reside in cosmos. This makes cow as sacred animal for Hindus, ancient Persians and ancient Egyptians. 

Finally all deities are same and it is the same Sun GOD reborn at Galactic Center as AvatarsMayans and Egyptians believed that the Sun dies and is reborn in the precession cycle at the very same place of Galactic center. However only the culture and religions have changed in respective regions as people migrated with same ideas and sad part is, we fight with each other now 😦 in name of religions,caste and race.

Origin of Sanatana Dharma
Origin of Sanatana Philosophy(referred as Hindu Philosophy) can be regarded as completely reformed as of today with changes and reforms brought by several scholars from past till date. However when we speak of culture or rituals followed by Hindus, it is mix of several traditions and the practice of rituals, Idol worship that are almost 11000 years old that includes cultures of Proto-Indo-Europeans, Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, ancient Persians and several others. Ancient rituals that have been followed from several generations got included with several waves of people migration here into Indian culture. It is this great culture that has digested any kind of cultural invasion and regarded them as its own. It accepted everything and rejected none. This is the power of Indian culture and greatness of India.

The word Persia has its origins in Old Persian word “Parsu-wash”(Axe-Cult) In the Greek myth, Parsu is referred as Perseus(Demi God) who beheaded Medusa and similarly we have Parshuram(Demi God) in Hindu mythology who beheaded Renuka. as shown below:

As an example, observe fire worship rituals or any other rituals followed by Aryans (Ancient Persians) and you will find that they closely relate rituals followed by Brahmins who are followers of Parshuram. For the fact, closest match to Rig Vedic Saraswati river from which Saraswat Brahmins claim origin is from Arachosia  location as shown in below map and upholds DNA study.
Just for my curiosity, I tried changing ‘S’ to ‘H’ like Sindhu to Hindu and was able to locate similar Goddess like Saraswati. Persians referred as Harahvati. Below are few reference of ancient Persian maps, Vedic/Puranic maps along with rivers in Central Asia as captured in RigVedic/Avestan literature.

There are several passages in the Vedas, especially the Atharvaveda and Avesta that are identical, except that they are in the different languages of Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit. Ahura Mazda, whom the Zoroastrians worship as the Supreme Lord is the Avestan equivalent to Vedic Sanskrit‘s Asura Medhira.

ScriptureSanskritAvestanEnglish Translation
Ṛgveda / AvestaVakshanah Asuramedhasya idam kshethram avayam.Vashna Ahuramazdaaha imam kshathram akunavam.By the grace of Ahuramazda I made this city/realm.
Ṛgveda/ Avestamahaantaa mitraa varunaa samraajaa devaav asuraaha sakhe
sakhaayaam ajaro jarimne agne martyaan amartyas tvam nah
mahaantaa mitraa varunaa devaav ahuraaha sakhe ya fedroi vidaat
patyaye caa vaastrevyo at caa khatratave ashaauno ashavavyo
O Ahura Mazda, you appear as the father, the ruler, the friend, the worker and as knowledge.
It is your immense mercy that has given a mortal the fortune to stay at your feet.

Further, there are striking similarities between the Eastern Iranian language of Avestan and Sanskrit, which may support the notion that the split was contemporary with the Vedic civilization living in Afghanistan at a very early stage. It is believed that King Vishtaspa was early follower of Zoroastrianism and and instrumental in the diffusion of the prophet’s message – Zarathustra
Ceremonies using a sace or ses  which is a tray that holds various ceremonial utensils is almost similar to rituals done by Brahmin priests in Hindu community.http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/ceremonies/sace.htm
Even Thread ceremony of Brahmins is similar to Navjot of Zoroastrianism.http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/navjote/index.htm
Inside house Brahmin ceremonies like Havana, Hoama is almost similar like rituals of Zoroastrianism:http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/ceremonies/liturgy.htm
http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/death/page2.htm
RigVedic Soma Yajna Ceremony is almost similar to Haoma(Hom) of Zoroastrians. Haoma is Persian word.
http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/haoma/index.htm
Old Persian cuneiform(one of the oldest form of human writing) and Sanskrit pronunciation has striking similarities. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behistun_Inscription and correct way to pronounce them can be found in below YouTube reference : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYcsuEpxyHM
DNA study clearly shows rare R1a1 Y-haplogroup (Y-HG) L657 clade subtype designated as LPKSTR is found in most male members of a clan of “founder” families within the Pancha GaudBrahmin(RigVedic Brahmin community) and several others.

DNA Reference:Genetic and Cultural Reconstruction of the Migration of an Ancient Lineage of Saraswat Brahmins/RigVedic Brahminshttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/651415/

Reference :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avestan_geography

From Indian side, Kambojas are included in the Uttarapatha. In ancient literature, the Kamboja is variously associated with the Gandhara, Darada and the Bahlika (Bactria) and is also referred in the Rigveda. The Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit: महाजनपद, lit. ‘great realm’, from maha, “great”, and janapada “foothold of a people”) were sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in Northern ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE during the second urbanization period. The 6th–5th centuries BCE is often regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history; during this period India’s first large cities arose after the demise of the Indus Valley Civilization. Archaeologically, this period has been identified as corresponding in part to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture.

In the ancient Zoroastrian scriptures of the AvestaHarā Bərəzaitī is the source of all mountains of the world. Harā Bərəzaitī came to be identified with Harborz and also Alborz,Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus range. In Avestan cosmogony, High Harā is the geographic center of the universe, immediately surrounded by the steppes of the Airyanem Vaejah, the first of the seven lands created by Ahura Mazda. From these high Hara mountains, waters rush down from the mountain as the mighty world river Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā ( Vedic Saraswati Equivalent), which in turn feed the great sea Vourukaša.According to H. Lommel, the original name of the divinity in Indo-Iranian times was Sarasvatī, which also means “she who possesses waters”.In Sanskrit, the name आर्द्रावी शूरा अनाहिता means “of the waters, mighty, and immaculate”. Similar to Hindu mythology Sarasvatī, Anāhitā of Avestan myths mentions this river that nurtures crops and herds; and she is hailed both as a divinity and as the mythical river which she personifies, “as great in bigness as all these waters which flow forth upon the earth” (Yasht 5.3)As per(Yasht 10.88) ….Harā is tall and luminous. The sacred plant haoma(Soma in Vedic) grows on Harā. It is also the home of the yazataMithra. It is the site in legend of sacrifices (yasnas) to the yazatas Mithra, SraošaArədvī Sūrā Anāhitā, Vayu, and Druvāspa, by sacrificers such as the divine priest Haoma (epitome of the sacred plant) and kings like Haošyaŋha and Yima.

Vedic cosmogony refers same Hara mountains as Sumeru (Mt Meru in Jainism and Buddhism). ‘Su‘ means good in Sanskrit and thus the name Mount Sumeru.  Good part of Vedic tribes is that they localize this mountain and associated cosmogony in whichever place they migrate.  Some researchers identify Mount Meru or Sumeru with the Pamirs, northern part of Afghanistan. As per current local Hindu cosmogony, SUMERU PARBAT(6351m) is present Kedārnāth mountain in the Garhwal district of Uttaranchal, India.  Similarly, the five central towers of Angkor Wat symbolize the peaks of Mount Meru, which according to Hindu mythology is the dwelling place of the gods. The mountain is said to be surrounded by an ocean.
Sumeru Mountains(Alborz,Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus range) as per ancient Avestan and Vedic cosmogony near Caspian Sea(Kashyapa Zee) of Caucasus range gave birth to Sumerian civilization which is referred as Land of holy Gods. ‘Su‘ means good in Sanskrit and thus the name Mount Sumeru. It is this civilization that invented first Human writing.

Other examples of Sumerian technology include: the wheelcuneiform scriptarithmetic and geometryirrigation systems, Sumerian boats, lunisolar calendarbronzeleathersawschiselshammersbracesbitsnailspinsringshoesaxeskniveslancepointsarrowheadsswordsgluedaggerswaterskins, bags, harnessesarmorquiverswar chariotsscabbardsbootssandalsharpoons and beer

  • Sumeru/Sumerian civilization is old Mesopotamia(current Iraq/Iran).
  • Kumeru/Khmer could be from India till South East Asia.
  • Pameru is current Pamir Mountains which is the roof of the world located in Tazkistan, Kyrgystan, Afghanistan

Most important of all rivers in Central Asia areOxus and Jaxartes that run parallel. Ancient Persian/Avestan texts refer these rivers as Yakhsha and VakhshaOxus is corrupted fromSanskrit word for Vaks ( Vaksh River). The Greek name for river Jax-artes or Iax-artes is derived from Old Persian name “Yakhsha Arta”
Details about Oxus and History:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amu_Darya
Vakhsh in its eastern parts(Vak means Speech in Sanksrit)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vakhsh_River
Many agree that early Vedic civilization being centered around Oxus/Vakhsh (Vaku) rivers. These rivers signifies sharp/sight and speech. There is a relationship with Iksh-vaku (Sharp sight-speech), the well-known sage. Iksh-vaku is the great grandson of sage Kashyapa. Lord Rama, Lord Buddha and great Suryavanshi kings belong to Ikshvaku dynasty.

These rivers(Yakhsha and Vakhsha) flows for a length of 2400 km across modern Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan into Lake Aral. There are evidences that earlier, it used to meet Caspian sea(Kaspische Zee) and the river course got changed possibly due to earth quakes. In ancient maps of Strabo, we can clearly see that Caspian Sea was known as ‘Kasyap Meer or ‘Kaspische Zee/Sea‘ named after Rishi Kashyap – the father of the devas, asuras, nagas and all of humanity as per Hindu Mythology. 

The Saka was the term used in Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians dwelled on the Eurasian Steppe.  The Sakas were Indo-Europeans with dialect similar to Sanskrit.The Sakas migrated into Central Asia and then to the northwest of the Indian subcontinent where they were known as the Indo-Scythians.

Siddhartha Gautama is also referred Sakyamuni Buddha and he belonged to the Shakya clan of India that has been identified as Sakas. In Serbian, “Vede” is knowledge, tat(a) – father (I) and mat(a) = root for mother in Slavic languages. TATAMATA also means someone who knows all and can do all. In same way in ancient SlavicSanskrit or PaliGata“gone” and  Āgata “come” and in this interpretation, Tathāgata means literally either “the one who has gone to suchness” or “the one who has arrived at suchness” and referred to Lord Buddha himself

Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Scythians

The Kalasha(Sanskrit: कलश kalaśa; literally “pitcher, pot“) is considered a symbol of abundance and “source of life” in the Vedas and known from the time of Rigveda. The Kalasha is believed to contain amrita(Soma), the elixir of life, and thus is viewed as a symbol of abundance, wisdom, and immortality. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalasha
You can still find ancient Kalash people/pantheon(DardicIndo-Aryanindigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan) and this tribe is one of last living representatives of Indo-European religionKalash mythology and folklore has been compared to that of ancient Greece, but they are much closer to Indo-Iranian (pre-Zoroastrian-Vedic) traditions.Based on their shared genetic drift, it is considered that they may be an ancient drifted North Eurasian stock
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalash_people

Ancient Vedic deities were revered only in Kalash community or tribe, the ancient Hindu god Yama Râja is referred as Imr’o in Kâmviri,Imra (*Yama Rājan), Māra ‘death’ (Nuristani). According to Sanskrit linguist Michael Witzel, the traditional Kalash religion shares many of the traits of myths, ritual, society, and echoes many aspects of Rigvedic, but not of the post-Rigvedic religion that developed in India.

Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_positionPadmasana or lotus position (Sanskrit: पद्मासन) is a cross-legged sittingasana originating in meditative practices of Hinduism.It is an ancient predating hatha yoga, and is commonly used for meditation, in the YogaJain, and Buddhist contemplative traditions. Shiva, the meditating ascetic God of HinduismSiddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, and the Tirthankaras (Ford-Makers) in Jainism have been depicted in the lotus position.
Concept of LingamSacred Bull(Nandi) (Taurus constellation), God re-birth myth during winter solstice and other related myths of star constellations is clearly visible in World’s First temple, Gobekli Tepe, Turkey around 11500-11000BCE

Other good example is Totem pole from Gobekeli tepe( 9000 BCE) and resemblance with Lingam of Gudimallam as shown below:

8500BCE – Nevali cori figurines(Reference : Nevalı Çori – Wikipedia) closely matches with ancient Egyptian and Hindu priests. The Sikha signifies one-pointed (ekanta) focus on a spiritual goal, and devotion to God. It is also an indication of cleanliness, as well as personal sacrifice to God. According to ancient smriti shastras, it was mandatory for all Hindus to keep Sikha – Wikipedia ( Currently we can see mainly among Brahmins and temple priests). Early Egyptian religion which is almost similar to Hinduism had mandate for all to wear Sikha including prince and they did this to differentiate people with knowledge of scribe/writing.

Culture of Hindus of India and Yezidis of middle east, Russia,Turkey etc are almost similar. Yezidis also pray deities with peacock angel like Hindus. The Yezidis or Yazidis are a Kurdish speaking people who live principally in northern Iraq. Yezidis claim that during and after a great flood around 4000 BCE, the Yezidis dispersed to many countries including India,hence they consider Hindus as brothers. Below is one such image where Yezidis request help from India during persecution by militants. 

Reference : http://www.yeziditruth.org/yezidis-and-hindus-re-uniting-as-one-peopleIn Hindu mythology, Asuras are described as powerful superhuman demigods or demons with good or bad qualities. The good Asuras are called Adityas and are led by Varuna, while the malevolent ones are called Danavas and are led by Vritra. In the earliest layer of Vedic texts Agni, Indra and other gods are also called Asuras, in the sense of them being “lords” of their respective domains, knowledge and abilities. In later Vedic and post-Vedic texts, the benevolent gods are called Devas, while malevolent Asuras compete against these Devas and are considered “enemy of the gods” or demons. Looking at below map of central Asia, the Sura and Asura Split – could be the basis for countries being named Syria and Assyria.  Several sources indicate that the name Syria is derived from the 8th century BC Luwian term “Sura/i”, and the derivative ancient Greek name: Σύριοι, Sýrioi, or Σύροι, Sýroi, both of which originally derived from Aššūrāyu (Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favors the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur.

Further, it is very clear that the names of the kings of the Mitannistate were of Indo-Aryan origin and a number of Indo-Aryan gods (Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Nasatya) are mentioned in the Mitanni texts, alongside the indigenous gods.

The Hittite archives of Àattušašhave revealed the oldest known horse-training manual. 

Several Indo-Aryantechnical terms for horse training are mentioned in this manual: aikawartanna ‘one turn (of the course)’ (Sanskrit eka-vartana-)terawartanna ‘three turns’, panzawartanna ‘five turns’ (Sanskrit pañca-),sattawartanna ‘seven turns’ (Sanskrit sapta-), and nawartanna (for nawa-wartanna) ‘nine turns’ (Sanskrit nava). The first time historically the word Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BCE with the Hurrians of the Middle East. These Hurrian’s had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. (Assuwa) is name of an Anatolian landscape in Hittite and Assyrian sources of the 15th century BCE. Just as example on similarities with Indo-European languagesBagh refers “GOD” and dad “given”, translating to “God-given” and both of these civilization refer this town with same meaning from ancient days till today. Baghvad Purana is “God given epic” in our Hindu Mythology. Again, we refer GOD as ‘Bhag’ for Bhagvan Buddha, Bhagvan Rama, Bhagvan Krishna etc. A devotee of Bhagvan Krishna is called a Bhagavata. This is my current surname :-).Bag’van related names appears as far as Russia, Romania and most of European countries. This is used by automobile companies like Bogdan group, famous football players and other great personalities. ‘Bogdan’ or Bohdan is derived from the Slavic words Bog/Boh (Cyrillic: Бог), meaning “god”, and dan (Cyrillic: дан), meaning “gift. Either Bogdan or Bohdan may be used in Poland.
‘Dan’ is gift in Sanskrit, Kannada, Hindi and almost all India languages even today and Bhag is god for referring Bhagvad Gita, Bhagvan and Bhag followers like us as ‘Bhagwath’Check list of names from Bogdan that are linked to famous personalities across the world:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogdan
Just take below example of nouns and verbs used by Russians. It is almost similar like Sanskrit that is used here in India.

Nouns ( Russian)Sanskrit EquivalentEnglish Meaning
KogdaKadaWhen
ObaubhaBoth
TotTatThat
VsegdaSadaAlways
TogdaTadaThen
PutnikpathikaTraveller
EstestvoastitvaBeing
DomDhamHouse
JenaJaniWife
MatMatrMother
SynSunuSon
SnohaSnusaDaughter-in-law
SvoystvosvatvaProperty
DeverDevarBrother-in-law
ZyatJata,JatiSon-in-law
BratBhratahbrother
Verbs (Russian)Sanskrit EquivalentEnglish Meaning
vad – vaditvad – vadatito confer or dispute about; to contend, quarrel
pros – prositprach – prachhatito ask, to question, interrogate
vɨspra – vɨsprašivaetviprach – viprcchatito ask various questions, make various inquiries
peč – pečyotpас – pacatito cook, bake, roast, boil
lay – laetrai – rayatito bark
bɨ – budetbhū – bhavatito become, be
tuz – tuzittuj – tojayatito hurt
gor – goritghṛ – ghаratito shine, burn
las – laskaetlas – lasātito play, sport, frolic; to embrace
voz – vozitvah – vahatito carry, transport, convey
lov – lovitlabh – labhateto take, seize, catch
lel – lelyeetlal – lālayatito  caress, fondle, foster, cherish
bav – bаvitbhū – bhavayatiexist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen, occur; to cause to be or become; to cherish, foster
kasl – kaslyaetkās – kāsateto cough
svet – svetaetśvit – śvetateto be bright or white
mer – mryotmṛ – maratito die, decease
pi – p’yotpī – piyateto drink
suš – sušitśuṣ – śuṣyatito dry, become dry or withered
mor – moritmṛ – mārayatito cause to die, kill, slay
pad – padyotpad – padyateto fall
perd – perditpard – pardatito break wind downwards
boya – boitsyabhyas – bhyasateto fear, be afraid, tremble
otda – otdayotuddā – uddadātito give away
vɨd – vɨdayotvidā – vidadātito give out, distribute, grant
po – poitpa – pāyayatito cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle)
i – idyotiṭ – eṭatito go
bɨv – bɨvaetbhū – bhavatito happen, occur
mes – mesitmiśr – miśrayatito mix, mingle, blend, combine
zna – znaetjña – jānātito know, have knowledge
liz – ližetlih – lihatito lick
vɨliz – vɨlizɨvaetvilih – vilelihatto lick continually or repeatedly
živ – živaetjīv – jīvatito live, be or remain alive
ver – veraetvṛ – varatito cove, screen, veil, conceal, hide, surround, obstruct, to close (a door)
lyub – lyubitlubh – lubhatito desire greatly or eagerly, long for, be interested in
vorot – vorotitvṛt – vartayatito cause to turn or revolve
top – topittap – tapatito make hot or warm
mer – meritmi – mirotito measure, meter, out, mark
do – doitdhe –  dhayatito suck, drink
val – valitval – valitito turn, turn round
vɨlup – vɨlupitvilup – vilumpatito tear or break off or to pieces, wound, lacerate pull out or up; to tear away
slav – slavitśram – śramyatisound, shout, loud praise
tyan – tyanettan – tanotito stretch (a cord), extend
ri – rinetrī – riṇātito release, set free, let go
vert – vertitvṛt – vartateto turn, turn round, revolve, roll
rev – revyotru – ravītito roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud
val – valyaetval – valateto turn, turn round
vid – viditvid – vidatito notice,  observe; to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of
isk – iščetiṣ –  icchati; eṣatito seek, search; to desire, wish, long for, request
proda – prodastpradā – pradatteto give away, give, offer, sell
oddel – oddelyaetuddal – uddalatito split away, break away
tryas – tryasyottras –  trasyatito tremble
bles – bleščetbhlāś – bhlāśateto shine, beam, glitter
sid – siditsad – sīdatito sit upon or in or at smth.
spa – spitsvap – svapitito sleep,  fall asleep
rɨd – rɨdaetrud – rodatito weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail
klešč – kleščitkliś – kliśnatito torment, cause pain
bde – bditbudh – budhyatito be awake
lip – lipnetlip – limpyatito be smeared; to be attached to, to stick, to adhere
lep – lepitlip – lepayatithe act of smearing, daubing, anointing, plastering
vɨtyan – vɨtyanetvitan – vitanuteto spread out, to stretch, extend,  to unfold, display, exhibit, manifest
vɨživ – vɨživaetvijīv – vijīvatito revive, return to life
slad – sladitsvad – svadatito make sweet or pleasant or agreeable
plav – plavaetplu – plavateto float, swim
bra – beryotbhṛ – bharatito hold, possess, have, keep
mni – mnitmna – manateto think, believe, imagine
pɨt – pɨtaetpiṭh – peṭhatito inflict or feel pain
kas – kasaetkaṣ – kaṣatito  test, try; to rub
vɨver – vɨvernetvivṛti – vivartateto turn back or away
vert – vertaetvṛt – vartateto turn, turn round
vert – vertitvrt – vartayatito cause to turn or revolve
bud – buditbudh – budhyateto wake up
vol – volitvṛ – vṛṇoti; varayatito choose, select, choose for one’s self, choose as; to like, love well

Kandalaksha is Russian town and port of Kandalaksha Gulf on the White Sea, north of the Arctic Circle. In Sanskrit Kandal is also referred as Milk.
Samarkand is best example that appears to be named after Hindu Sage Marakand. Greeks referred Samarkand as Marakand.
Below are list of English words that have Sanskrit connection

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_Sanskrit_origin

About Hinduism and Bharata:As per Hindu mythology, Vishvamitra is credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including Gayatri Mantra. Vishwamitra was king earlier and had conflicts with Sage Vashista over sacred cow “Kamadhenu“. During conflict with Sage Vashista, Vishvamitra realizes power of sages and understands that power obtained by penances was far greater than mere physical might. He renounced his kingdom and began his quest to become a greater rishi than Sage Vashista. Undergoing many austerities, Vishvamitra at last obtained the title of Brahmarishi from Vashista himself. Vishvamitra had a daughter named Shakuntala. Son of Shakuntala became a great emperor. He came to be known as Emperor Bharata, in whose name the land of India got its name Bharata( Refer ancient Puranic Map on location of Bharatha Varsha as shown in this blog above) .

India is a place where you will still find beautiful mixture of all major races of world who arrived here in times. This is a country with mixed race and humans might have settled in India due to multiple waves of migrations. The first migrants came with the Southern Coastal dispersal, ca. 60,000 years ago, thereafter complex migrations within south and southeast Asia took place with people of Australoid Race. Then the migration of Mediterranean race, later Indo-European and finally Mongoloid Race(Tibet-Burmese) speaking people in North eastern parts of India.This is one place in the world where you can locate almost all the oldest surviving ancient religion/cultures of the world living together peacefully. Hindu religious scriptures date back up to 6,000 years and as a known fact, India has never invaded any country in its past 10,000 years of history and the people associated with ancient civilizations across the world who came here along with their cultural past due to persecution or ill-treatment in their native were adapted and protected here in this great land just because of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam“, the entire world is a family is what our philosophy teaches if you are a Hindu. “Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah“, may all living beings live happily, in peace, may good happen to all, may all prosper and live their lives to their fullest potential is what Hindus still follow.  Unity in Diversity is India’s strength. India is a land of “Unity in diversity”.“Unity in diversity” is based on the concept where the individual or social differences in physical attributes, skin color, castes, creed, cultural and religious practices, etc. are not looked upon as a conflict. Rather, these differences are looked upon as varieties that enrich the society and the nation as a whole.Unity in diversity is a very important principle because we all live in a diverse world and it is crucial to respect each other and to support each other no matter what our culture, background, gender, orientation or other differences may be.

Sanatana Philosophy
Below are six major schools of thoughts in Sanatana philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta. ( Each one is better than other in path of self realization and all these emerged by debating merits and demerits of each school of thoughts in most non-violent way by Vedic Scholars) 1. Samkhya. This is an oldest and strongly dualism theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter. Samkhya School espouses dualism between consciousness and matter. It regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Purusha (Consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Samkhya philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche). Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions. The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.

2. Yoga, this comprises the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Many types of Yoga, such as raja yoga, jnana yoga, karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga and closely related to Samkhya school of thoughts emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation. The Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jnana (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha (Liberation to Universal Spirit)

3. Nyaya or logic, which explores sources of knowledge using Nyaya Sutras. It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance and Moksha (liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. The six means of knowledge are:•Pratyaksha: Knowledge thru Perception
•Anumana : Knowledge thru Inference
•Upamana : Knowledge by Comparison
•Sabda : Knowledge directly through Words
•Arthapatti : Knowledge thru postulation
•Anupalabhi : Knowledge based on absence4. Vaiseika, an empiricist school of atomism. It postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to atoms and that one’s experiences are derived from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence. Knowledge and liberation are achievable by complete understanding of the world of experience. This philosophy is credited to Kashyapa during Vedic times.5. Mimamsa: Mimamsa deals with analysis of Vedic mantras. There are two branches of Mimamsa called Purva mimamsa and Uttara mimamsa. The Purva mimamsa analyses the Karma part of Vedas and the Uttara mimamsa for Jnana part.
6. Vedanta:  Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. Vedanta again has several divisions and primary is Advaita and Dvaita.
Advaita literally means “not two, sole, unity”. It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism. Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness. Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.

What are Vedas and What does it Preach?

Ancient Vedic philosophy basically comprises of Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads. The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. The Vedas are divided into four groups, Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda.1. Rig Veda: Hymns in Prayer (Stotras) forms dedicated to Gods in tradition. It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas). The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities. The books were composed by sages and poets from different priestly groups over a period. About two-thirds of Rigveda is about the gods Agni (Fire) and Indra (Ruler of the gods). Rigveda contains a sense of intimate communion between Nature and the Rishis or visionaries2. Sama Veda: The Sama-Veda is the “Veda of chants” or “Knowledge of melodies”. Hymns in Music& Melody form. A collection of hymns used by the priests during the Soma sacrifice. Many of these duplicate in part or in whole hymns from the Rig Veda3. Yajur Veda is the Veda of ritual. The ritual is to recreate the universe within our own psyche and thereby unite the individual with the universal4. Atharva Veda: Hymns which were focused on avoid calamities and sufferings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas

The PuranasThe Purana literature are in story form and voluminous in nature. There are 18 main puranas and most of the popular puranas were written by Vyasa. Puranas were the medium to teach the common man on values of life through an intelligent weaving of mythological stories. Some of the most popular puranas include Skanda purana, Agni Purana, Bhagavatha Purana , Vishnu Purana , Siva Purana and so on…..The Upanishads:
The Upanishads are largely philosophical works in dialog form. They discuss question of nature philosophy and the fate of the soul, and contain some mystic and spiritual interpretations of the Vedas. The compiler of the Vedas and Puranas was Vyasa and referred as Veda Vyasa.
Spread of Sanatana Culture in Indian sub-continent:
This Sanatana culture and school of thoughts (referred as Sanatana Dharma) at one point was all over India and South East Asia. You can still see the remains of this rich culture in the Hindu temples of Angkor Wat, Bali and Thailand.Sages were main reason to spread this culture and wherever these sages have travelled, the culture has spread.

Adi Shankaracharya helped to unite various school of thoughts under one single foundation of Sanatana Dharma (currently referred as Hinduism). Adi Shankara traveled across the Indian Subcontinent to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. The united Indian culture what we see today was due to Adi Shankara’s contribution those days.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara

As we all know, civilizations of Mesopotamian got destroyed in times and so as Egyptian, Roman, Persian and several 100’s which had such a beautiful heritage and powerful empires got vanished except Sanatana Philosophy(Hinduism) that prevailed from oldest Sarasvati civilization and still strong as of today. Oldest ancestral culture was nurtured and preserved in India from several centuries even after several invasions. The main reason beyond this is Hinduism. Hinduism has no known founder and no single book to be followed which easily allowed scholars to do reforms for better philosophical and religious practices in times that can digest any kind of cultural invasions. Hinduism is a culture that constantly evolves and not stagnant with set of rules. India is a Place of Re-union of many Religions, people union of different languages, union of diverse cultures that settled here in times. It strongly feel that it was India that kept alive a message of Unity in Diversity and protected all the ancient cultures as it is from several thousand years of human history.Thanks for reading this blog.

References :

For Question and Answers, please visit below URL: 
https://www.quora.com/profile/Arvind-BhagwathConstellations –Reference : http://www.chidambaramhiddentreasure.com/orion-chidambaram/ Night Sky Astrology – Google Sky: https://www.google.com/sky/
DNA reference ( R1a particularlyhttp://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA.shtml
International DNA project. – http://www.r1a.org/2.htm 
Also reference to below Wikipedia will lead to several links and other reliable scientific projects related to this topic- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a

Arctic Origin of Vedas – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Arctic_Home_in_the_VedasVedas, Puranas and Upanishads:https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduismAncient Scripts and History
htttp://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html

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